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Larry L. Howell

Larry L Howell is an Associate Dean and Professor at Brigham Young University (BYU). Prof. Howell received his B.S. degree from BYU and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Purdue University. Prior to joining BYU in 1994 he was a visiting professor at Purdue University, a finite element analysis consultant for Engineering Methods, Inc., and an engineer on the design of the YF-22 (the prototype for the U.S. Air Force F-22 Raptor). He is a Fellow of ASME, past chair of the ASME Mechanisms & Robotics Committee, and has been associate editor for the Journal of Mechanisms & Robotics and the Journal of Mechanical Design. He is the recipient of the ASME Machine Design Award, ASME Mechanisms & Robotics Award, Theodore von Kármán Fellowship, NSF Career Award, Purdue Outstanding Mechanical Engineer (alumni award), and the BYU Karl G. Maeser Distinguished Lecturer Award (BYU’s highest faculty award). 

Prof. Howell’s research focuses on compliant mechanisms, including origami-inspired mechanisms, space mechanisms, microelectromechanical systems, and medical devices. He is the co-editor of the Handbook of Compliant Mechanisms and the author of Compliant Mechanisms which are published in both English and Chinese. His lab’s work has also been reported in popular venues such as Newsweek, Scientific American, Popular Science, and the PBS documentary program NOVA.​ 

EDUCATION

PhD, Purdue University, Mechanical Engineering
December 1993
Dissertation: “A Generalized Loop-Closure Theory for the Analysis and Synthesis of Compliant Mechanisms”

MSME, Purdue University, Mechanical Engineering
August 1991
Thesis: “The Design and Analysis of Large-Deflection Members in Compliant Mechanisms”

BS, Brigham Young University, Mechanical Engineering, December 1987
Honors: Magna Cum Laude Minor: Mathematics


PROFESSIONAL LICENSE

Licensed Professional Engineer, State of Utah, February 1995 to present


EXPERIENCE

Professor, Fall 2005 to present
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT

Chair, May 2001 to July 2007
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT

Associate Professor, Fall 2000 to Fall 2005
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT

Assistant Professor, June 1994 to Fall 2000
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT
Visiting Assistant Professor, January 1994 to May 1994
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

Research / Teaching Assistant, From August 1989 to December 1993
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

Project Engineer, August 1991 to October 1992 and June 1993 to July 1993
Engineering Methods, Inc., West Lafayette, IN
Part-time consulting work primarily involving finite element analysis. Stress, fatigue, and nonlinear analysis. Project manager responsible for projects of 2-3 engineers. Technical support for ANSYS customers.

Engineer, January 1988 to August 1989
General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin), Fort Worth, TX
Structural design engineer on the YF-22 (the original prototypes of the F22 fighter jet). Preliminary design, component and assembly design, and manufacturing and assembly follow-up. Design of graphite composite and aluminum aircraft components.

 

HONORS AND AWARDS

 

Theodore von Kármán Fellow, RWTH Aachen University, ERS International, October 2013.

 

Best Paper Award Honorable Mention, 37th ASME Mechanisms & Robotics Conference, Portland, OR, August 2013, for a paper entitled “Accommodating Thickness in Origami-Based Deployable Arrays,” by Zirbel, S.A., Lang, R.J., Magleby, S.P., Thomson, M.W., Sigel, D.A., Walkemeyer, P.E., Trease, B.P., Howell, L.L.

 

Best Paper Award, ASME/IFToMM International Conference on Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots (ReMAR2012), Tianjin, China, July 2012, for a paper entitled “Bi-Behavioral Prosthetic Knee Enabled by a Metamorphic Compliant Mechanism,” by S. Zirbel, S. Curtis, R. Bradshaw, L. Duffield, G. Teichert, N. Williams, R. Rorrer, S. Magleby, L. Howell.

 

Excellence in Scholarship Award, Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering & Technology, Brigham Young University, 2010.

 

Mechanism & Robotics Award, given by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers to engineers known for a lifelong contribution to the field of mechanism design or theory, 2009.

 

Best Paper Award Honorable Mention, 33rd ASME Mechanisms & Robotics Conference for a paper entitled “Analysis of Elliptical Rolling Contact Joints in Compression,” by Montierth, J.R., Todd, R.H., and Howell, L.L., San Diego, California, 2009.

 

ASME Utah Section nominee for the UEC Utah Engineering Educator of the Year Award, 2008.

 

University Professorship, Brigham Young University, September 2007 – August 2017.

 

Finalist, ASME Mechanisms & Robotics Conference Best Paper Award, at the 2005 International Design Engineering Conferences for “Compliant Rolling-Contact Element Mechanisms,” by Cannon, J.R., Lusk, C.P., and Howell, L.L.

 

Karl G. Maeser Research and Creative Arts Award, Brigham Young University, 2005-2006.

 

Fellow of ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers), elected 2004.

 

Technology Transfer Award, Brigham Young University, annual university award received 2001.

 

Faculty Achievement Award, Mechanical Engineering Department, Brigham Young University, 2000.

 

Voted Outstanding Teacher by Mechanical Engineering students, Brigham Young University, 2000.

 

Black and Decker Best Paper Award, at the ASME Design Automation Conference for a paper entitled “Evaluation and Comparison of Alternative Compliant Over-running Clutch Designs,” by G.M. Roach and L.L. Howell, 1999.

 

Young Scholar Award, Brigham Young University, 1998-2001.

 

CAREER Award, National Science Foundation, 1996-2000.

 

Who’sWho listings in the following: Marquis Who’sWho in Science and Engineering, Marquis Who’sWho in America, Marquis Who’sWho in American Education, Who’s Who Among America’s Teachers, Marquis Who’sWho in the World, AcademicKeys Who's Who in Engineering Education, Marquis Who’sWho in Finance and Business, Marquis Who’sWho in the West.

 

Selected by Mechanical Engineering students as the teacher who has inspired them the most and has been the most influential in their education, Brigham Young University, 1999.

 

Elected outstanding Professor by graduating Mechanical Engineering seniors, Brigham Young University, 1996.

 

Mechanical Dynamics Inc. Software Award for a paper entitled “Parametric Deflection Approximations for End-Loaded, Large-Deflection Beams in Compliant Mechanisms,” by L.L. Howell and A. Midha, at the 22nd Biennial ASME Mechanisms Conference, 1992.

 

Shell Oil Foundation Doctoral Fellowship, Purdue University, 1992.

 

Lozar Fellow, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 1991.

 

First Place, graduate division, 21st Biennial ASME Mechanisms Conference - Student Design Competition, 1990, for an entry entitled “Synthesis of a Compliant Mechanism Hand Tool.”

 

Cost Improvement Award, General Dynamics, 1989.

ME EN 372, Analysis and Manufacture of Machine Components (Machine Design)

ME EN 437, Kinematics

ME EN 472, Mechanical Systems Design Applications

ME EN 475/476, Integrated Product and Process Engineering (Capstone Coach)

ME EN 538, Compliant Mechanisms

EC EN 550, Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

Rel A 121, Book of Mormon

Alden Yellowhorse, Ph.D. dissertation in progress, Brigham Young University.

Todd Nelson, Ph.D. dissertation in progress, Brigham Young University.

DeFigueiredo, Bryce, M.S. thesis in progress, Brigham Young University.

Tolman, Kyler, M.S. thesis in progress, Brigham Young University.

Dearden, Jason, "Design and Analysis of Two Compliant Mechanism Designs for Use in Minimally Invasive Surgical Instruments," M.S. thesis, Brigham Young University, July 2016.

Merriam, Ezekiel, "Stiffness Reduction Strategies for Additively Manufactured Compliant Mechanisms," Ph.D. dissertation, Brigham Young University, April 2016.

Evans, Thomas, “Deployable and Foldable Arrays of Spatial Mechanisms,” M.S. thesis, Brigham Young University, April 2015.

Hanna, Brandon, “Modeling and Testing of Bistable Waterbomb Base Configurations,” M.S. thesis, Brigham Young University, December 2014.

Zirbel, Shannon, “Compliant Mechanisms for Deployable Space Systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Brigham Young University, December 2014.

Tolman, Sean, “Elastic Energy Absorption via Compliant Corrugations,” Ph.D. dissertation, Brigham Young University, August 2014.

Francis, Kevin, “Origami-Based Design for Engineering Applications,” M.S. thesis, Brigham Young University, August 2013.

Merriam, Ezekiel, “Fully Compliant Mechanisms for Bearing Subtraction in Robotics and Space Applications,” M.S. thesis, Brigham Young University, April 2013.

Fowler, Robert, “Investigation of Compliant Space Mechanisms with Application to the Design of a Large-Displacement Monolithic Compliant Rotational Hinge,” M.S. thesis, Brigham Young University, August 2012.

Wilding, Samuel, “Expanding Lamina Emergent Mechanisms (LEM) Capabilities: Spherical LEMs, LEM Joints, and LEM Applications,” M.S. thesis, Brigham Young University, August 2011.

Zirbel, Shannon, “Characterization of the Mechanical Response of the Lumbar Spine,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, August 2011.

Dodgen, Eric, “Spinal Implant with Customized and Nonlinear Stiffness,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, August 2011.

Aten, Quentin, “Devices and Methods for Electro-Physical Transport of DNA across Cell Membranes,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Brigham Young University, August 2011.

Halverson, Peter A., “Modeling, Design, and Testing of Contact-aided Compliant Mechanisms in Spinal Arthroplasty,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Brigham Young University, August 2010.

Stratton, Eric, “Design and Analysis of a Compliant Mechanism Spinal Implant,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, August 2010.

Olsen, Brian, “A Design Framework that Employs a Classification Scheme and Library for Compliant Mechanism Design,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, August 2010.

Larsen, Gerrit T., “Piezoresistive Models for Polysilicon with Bending and Torsional Loads,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 2009.

Smith, David G., “Off-axis Stiffness and Piezoresistive Sensing in Large-displacement Linear-motion Microelectromechanical Systems,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 2009.

Jacobsen, Joseph O., “Fundamental Components for Lamina Emergent Mechanisms,” M.S. thesis, Brigham Young University, April 2008.

Cherry, Brian B., “Characterizing the Three-dimensional Behavior of Bistable Micromechanisms,” M.S. thesis, Brigham Young University, April 2008.

Halverson, Peter Andrew, “Multi-stable Compliant Rolling-contact Elements,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, August 2007.

Johns, Gary, “The Piezoresistive Effect in Microflexures,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, April 2007.

Anderson, Jeffrey, “Piezoresistive Sensing of Bistable Micro Mechanism State,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 2005.

Lusk, Craig, “Ortho-planar Mechanisms for Microelectromechanical Systems,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Brigham Young University, August 2005.

Hubbard, Neal, “Dual-stage Thermally Actuated Surface-micromachined Nanopositioners,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, April 2005.

Wittwer, Jonathan, “Simulation-based Design under Uncertainty for Compliant Microelectromechanical Systems,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Brigham Young University, April 2005.

Cannon, Jesse, “Compliant Mechanisms to Perform Bearing and Spring Functions in High Precision Applications,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 2004.

Wilcox, Daniel, “Fully Compliant Tensural Bistable Mechanisms (FTBM) with On-chip Thermal Actuation,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 2004.

Weight, Ryan, “High-Torque Capacity Compliant Centrifugal Clutches,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, April 2004.

Kennedy, John, “Compliant, In-plane Ratchet and Pawl Micromechanisms for Safety Applications,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 2003.

Jensen, Kimberly, “Analysis and Design of Surface Mircomachined Micromanipulators for Out-of-plane Micropositioning,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, August 2003.

Allred, Timothy, “Compliant Mechanism Suspensions,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, August, 2003.

Lyon, Scott M., “The Pseudo-rigid-body Model for Dynamic Predictions of Macro and Micro Compliant Mechanisms,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Brigham Young University, August, 2003.

Baker, Michael, “On-Chip Actuation of Compliant Bistable Micro-Mechanisms,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, April 2002.

Masters, Nathan, “A Self-Retracting Fully Compliant Bistable Micromechanism,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 2001.

Wittwer, Jonathan, “Predicting the Effects of Dimensional and Material Property Variations in Micro Compliant Mechanisms,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 2001.

Weight, Brent, “Development and Design of Constant-Force Mechanisms,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 2001.

Gomm, Troy, “Development of In-Plane Compliant Bistable Microrelays,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, August 2001.

Clements, Deanne, “Implementing Compliant Mechanisms in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS),” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 2000.

Mortensen, Clint, “Behavior Models for Compliant Continuously Variable Transmissions,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, August 2000.

Crane, Nathan, “Compliant Centrifugal Clutches: Design, Analysis, and Testing,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 1999.

Parise, John J., “Ortho-Planar Mechanisms,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, August 1999.

Cragun, Rebecca, “Thermal Microactuators for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS),” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, August 1999.

Jensen, Brian D., “Identification of Macro- and Micro-Compliant Mechanism Configurations Resulting in Bistable Behavior,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, August 1998.

Roach, Gregory M., “An Investigation of Compliant Over-running Ratchet and Pawl Clutches,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, August 1998.

Nielson, Andrew J., “Demonstration of the Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model for Macro and Micro Compliant Pantographs,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, April 1998.

Henrie, Alisa J. Millar, “Variable Compliance Via Magneto-Rheological Materials,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 1997.

Opdahl, Pat G., “Modeling and Analysis of Compliant Bi-stable Mechanisms Using the Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 1996.

Edwards, Brian T., “Functionally Binary Pinned-Pinned Segments,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, December 1996.

Derderian, James M., “The Pseudo-Rigid-Body-Model Concept and its Application to Micro Compliant Mechanisms,” M.S. Thesis, Brigham Young University, April 1996.

Books

Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., and Olsen, B.O., Editors, Handbook of Compliant Mechanisms, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 2013.

 

Howell, L.L., Compliant Mechanisms, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 2001.

 

Chinese Translation of Compliant Mechanisms published (under agreement with Wiley) by Higher Education Press, an official publisher of the State Education Department of China. Translator: Professor Yue-Qing Yu.

 

Book Chapters

Edmondson, B.J., Lang, R.J., Morgan, M.R., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Thick Rigidly Foldable Structures Realized by an Offset Panel Technique,” Origami 6, American Mathematical Society, Vol. 1, pp. 149-161, 2015.

 

Evans, T.A., Lang, R.J., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Rigidly Foldable Origami Twists,” Origami 6, American Mathematical Society, Vol. 1, pp. 119-130, 2015.

 

Zirbel, S., Curtis, S., Bradshaw, R., Duffield, L., Teichert, G., Williams, N., Rorrer, R., Magleby, S., Howell, L., “Bi-Behavioral Prosthetic Knee Enabled by a Metamorphic Compliant Mechanism,” Chapter 36, Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots I, pp. 401-409, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-4141-9_36, also proceedings of ReMAR 2012, Tianjin, China, July 9-11, 2012. Winner of conference Best Paper Award. 

 

Howell, L.L., “Compliant Mechanisms,” Chapter 7, 21st Century Kinematics: The 2012 NSF Workshop, Editor M. McCarthy, Springer, 2012. 

 

Howell, L.L., “Compliant Mechanisms,” in Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology, Editor: B. Bhusham, Springer, 2012.

 

Howell, L.L., McLain, T.W., Baker, M.S., and Lott, C.D., “Techniques in the Design of Thermomechanical Microactuators,” Chapter 7, MEMS/NEMS Handbook, Techniques and Applications, Vol 4, Editor: C.T. Leondes, Springer, pp. 187-200, 2006.

 

Linford, M., Davis, R., Magleby, S., Howell, L., Jiang, G., and Thulin, C., “Chemomechanical Surface Modification of Materials for Patterning,” Chapter 4, Nanolithography and Patterning Techniques in Microelectronics, Bucknall D.G., Ed., CRC Press, pp. 120-154, 2005.

 

Adams, B.L., Henrie, B.L., Howell, L.L., and Balling, R.J., “Structure-Properties Relations: EBSD-Based Material Sensitive Design,” Chapter 15, Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science, Editors: A.J. Schwartz, M. Kumar, and B.L. Adams, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 171-180, 2000.

 

Howell, L.L. and Midha, A., “Compliant Mechanisms,” Section 9.10, Modern Kinematics: Developments in the Last Forty Years, Editor: A. Erdman, Wiley, New York, pp. 422-428, 1993.

 

Norton, T.W., Howell, L.L., and Midha, A., “On Graphical Synthesis Techniques for Planar Four-Bar Mechanisms for Limit Positions and High Performance,” Section 4.5, Modern Kinematics: Developments in the Last Forty Years, Editor: A. Erdman, Wiley, New York, pp. 87-95, 1993.

 

Journal Publications

Dearden, J., Grames, C., Jensen, B.D., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Inverted L-Arm Gripper Compliant Mechanism,” Journal of Medical Devices, Vol. 11, 034502-1 to 34502-6, doi:10.1115/1.4036336, 2017.

 

Lang, R.L., Nelson, T.G., Maglby, S.P., Howell, L.L., "Thick Rigidly Foldable Origami Mechanisms Based on Synchronized Offset Rolling Contact Elements," ASME Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics, Vol. 9, pp. 021013-1 to 021013-17., DOI: 10.115/1.4035686, 2017.

 

Bruton, J.T., Nelson, T.G., Zimmerman, T.K., Fernelius, J.D., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Packing and Deploying Soft Origami to and from Cylindrical Volumes with Application to Automotive Airbags,” Royal Society Open Science, Vol 3: 160429, DOI:10.1098/rsos.160429, 2016.

 

Tolman, K.A., Merriam, E.G., and Howell, L.L., “Compliant Constant-Force Linear-Motion Mechanism,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 106, pp. 68–79., DOI: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2016.08.009, 2016.

 

Nelson, T.G., Bruton, J., Rieske, N., Walton, P., Fullwood, D.T., Howell, L.L., “Material Selection Shape Factors for Compliant Arrays in Bending,” Materials & Design, Vol. 110, pp. 865-877, DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2016.08.056, 2016.

 

Merriam, E.G., Tolman, K.A., and Howell, L.L., “Integration of Advanced Stiffness-Reduction Techniques Demonstrated in a 3D-Printable Joint,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol 105, pp. 260-271, DOI:10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2016.07.009, 2016.

 

Merriam, E., Lund, J.M., Howell, L.L., “Compound Joints: Behavior and Benefits of Flexure Arrays,” Precision Engineering, Vol. 45, pp. 79-89, DOI:10.1016/j.precisioneng.2016.01.011, 2016.

 

Merriam, E.G. and Howell, L.L., “Lattice Flexures: Geometries for Stiffness Reduction of Blade Flexures,” Precision Engineering, Vol 45, pp. 160-167, DOI:10.1016/j.precisioneng.2016.02.007, 2016.

 

Morgan, J., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “An Approach to Designing Origami-Adapted Aerospace Mechanisms,” ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 138, pp. 052301-1 to 052301-10, DOI: 10.1115/1.4032973, 2016.

 

Nelson, T.G., Lang, R.L., Pehrson, N., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Facilitating Deployable Mechanisms and Structures via Developable Lamina Emergent Arrays,” ASME Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics, Vol. 8, pp. 031006-1 to 031006-10, DOI: 10.1115/1.4031901, 2016.

 

Lang, R.J., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Single-Degree-of-Freedom Rigidly Foldable Origami Flashers,” ASME Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics, Vol. 8, pp. 031005-1 to 03005-15, DOI: 10.1115/1.4032102, 2016.

 

Morgan, M.R., Lang, R.J., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Towards Developing Product Applications of Thick Origami Using the Offset Panel Technique,” Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 7, pp. 69-77, doi:10.5194/ms-7-69-2016, 2016. 

 

Safsten, C., Fillmore, T., Logan, A., Halverson, D., Howell, L., “Analysis of Stability Properties of Kaleidocycles,” ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 83, No. 5, 051001-051001-13, DOI: 10.1115/1.4032572, 2016.

 

Nelson, T.G., Lang, R.L., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “Curved-Folding-Inspired Deployable Compliant Rolling-contact Element (D-CORE),” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 96, pp. 225-238, DOI:10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2015.05.017, 2016.

 

Yellowhorse, A., Howell, L.L., “Creating Rigid Foldability to Enable Mobility of Origami-Inspired Mechanisms,” ASME Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics, Vol. 8, No. 1, 011011-1, DOI:10.1115/1.4029923, 2016.

 

Delimont, I.L., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “A Family of Dual-Segment Compliant Joints Suitable for Use as Surrogate Folds,” ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol 137, No. 9, 092302-092302-9, DOI: 10.1115/1.4030875, 2015.

 

Evans, T.A., Lang, R.J., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Rigidly Foldable Origami Gadgets and Tessellations,” Royal Society Open Science, Vol. 2, 150067, DOI: 10.1098/rsos.150067, 2015.

 

Hanna, B.H., Magleby, S.P., Lang, R.J., and Howell, L.L., “Force-deflection Modeling for Generalized Origami Waterbomb-Base Mechanisms,” ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 82, No. 8, 081001-1, DOI: 10.1115/1.4030659, 2015.

 

Tanner, J.D., Grames, C., Jensen, B.D., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Millimeter-Scale Robotic Mechanisms Using Carbon Nanotube Composite Structures,” Journal of Mechanisms & Robotics, Vol. 7, No. 2, paper 021001 (7 pages), DOI: 10.1115/1.4029436, 2015.

 

Delimont, I.L., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Evaluating Compliant Hinge Geometries for Origami-Inspired Mechanisms,” ASME Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics, Vol. 7, No. 1, paper 011009 (8 pages), DOI: 10.1115/1.4029325, 2015.

 

Merriam, E.G. and Howell, L.L., “Non-Dimensional Approach for Static Balancing of Rotational Flexures,” Mechanisms and Machine Theory, Vol. 84, DOI:10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2014.10.006, pp. 90-98, 2015.

 

Zirbel, S.A., Stolworthy, D.K., Howell, L.L., and Bowden, A.E., “A Standardized Representation of Spinal Quality of Motion,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Vol. 228, No. 11, pp. 1168-1175, DOI: 10.1177/0954411914559079, 2014.

 

Fowler, R.M., Maselli, A., Pluimers, P., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Flex-16: A Large-Displacement Monolithic Compliant Rotational Hinge,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 82, pp. 203-217, 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2014.08.008, 2014.

 

Howell, L.L., Sorensen, C.D., Jones, M.R., “Are Undergraduate GPA and General GRE Percentiles Valid Predictors of Performance for Admission to an Engineering Graduate Program?” International Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 1145-1165, 2014.

 

Tolman, S.S., Delimont, I.A., Howell, L.L., Fullwood, D.T., “Material Selection for Elastic Energy Absorption in Origami-Inspired Compliant Corrugations,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 23, paper no. 094010, DOI:10.1088/0964-1726/23/9/094010, 2014.

 

Hanna, B.H., Lund, J.N., Lang, R.J., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Waterbomb Base: A Symmetric Single-Vertex Bistable Origami Mechanism,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 23, paper no. 094009, DOI:10.1088/0964-1726/23/9/094009, 2014. 

 

Homer, E.R., Harris, M.B., Zirbel, S.A., Kolodziejska, J.A., Kozachkov, H. Trease, B.P., Borgonia, J.C., Agnes, G.S., Howell, L.L., and Hofmann, D.C., “New Methods for Developing and Manufacturing Compliant Mechanisms Utilizing Bulk Metallic Glass,” Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 16, No. 7, PP. 850-856, DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300566, 2014.

 

Bowen, L.A., Baxter, W.L., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “A Position Analysis of Coupled Spherical Mechanisms in Action Origami,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 77, pp. 13-24, DOI: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2014.02.006, 2014.

 

Aten, Q.T., Jensen, B.D., Burnett, S.H., Howell, L.L., “A Self-reconfiguring Metamorphic Nanoinjector for Injection into Mouse Zygotes,” Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 85, 055005; DOI: 10.1063/1.4872077, 2014.

 

Toone, N.C., Fazio, W.C., Lund, J.M., Teichert, G.H., Jensen, B.D., Burnett, S.H., and Howell, L.L., “Investigation of Unique Carbon Nanotube Cell Restraint Compliant Mechanisms,” Mechanics-based Design of Structures and Machines, DOI:10.1080/15397734.2014.908298, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 343-354, 2014.

 

Stolworthy, D.K, Zirbel, S.A., Howell, L.L., Samuels, M., Bowden, A.E., “Characterization and Prediction of Rate-dependent Flexibility in Lumbar Spine Biomechanics at Room and Body Temperature,” The Spine Journal, Vol. 14, pp. 789-798, DOI: 10.1016/j.spinee.2013.08.043, 2014.
 

Merriam, E.G., Jones, J.E., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “Monolithic 2 DOF Fully Compliant Space Pointing Mechanism,” Mechanical Sciences, doi:10.5194/ms-4-381-2013, V. 4, pp. 381-390, 2013.

 

Francis, K.C., Blanch, J.E., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “Origami-like Creases in Sheet Materials for Compliant Mechanism Design,” Mechanical Sciences, doi:10.5194/ms-4-371-2013, Vol. 4, pp. 371-380, 2013.

 

Zirbel, S.A., Stolworthy, D.K., Howell, L.L., and Bowden, A.E., “Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Alters Lumbar Spine Segmental Stiffness in All Modes of Loading under a Compressive Follower Load,” The Spine Journal, Vol. 13, pp. 1134-1147, DOI: 10.1016/j.spinee.2013.02.010, 2013.

 

Bowen, L.A., Grames, C.L., Magleby, S.P., Lang, R.J., Howell, L.L., “An Approach for Understanding Action Origami as Kinematic Mechanisms,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 135, paper no. 111008, DOI: 10.1115/1.4025379, 2013.

 

Zirbel, S.A., Lang, R.J., Magleby, S.P., Thomson, M.W., Sigel, D.A., Walkemeyer, P.E., Trease, B.P., Howell, L.L., “Accommodating Thickness in Origami-Based Deployable Arrays,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 135, paper no. 111005, DOI: 10.1115/1.4025372, 2013.

 

Wilson, A.M., Aten, Q.T., Toone, N.C., Black, J.L., Jensen, B.D., Tamowski, S., Howell, L.L., Burnett, S.H., “Transgene Delivery via Intracellular Electroporetic Nanoinjection,” Transgenic Research, DOI 10.1007/s11248-013-9706-7, Vol. 22, pp. 993-1002, 2013.

 

Halverson, P.A., Bowden, A.E., Howell, L.L., “A Compliant Mechanism Approach to Achieving Specific Quality of Motion in a Lumbar Total Disc Replacement,” International Journal of Spine Surgery (formerly SAS Journal), DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsp.2012.02.002, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 78-86, 2012.

 

Dodgen, E., Stratton, E., Bowden, A.E., Howell, L.L., “Spinal Implant Development, Modeling, and Testing to Achieve Customizable and Nonlinear Stiffness,” Journal of Medical Devices, Vol. 6, DOI: 10.1115/1.4006543, 2012.

 

Wilding, S.E., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., “Introduction of Planar Compliant Joints Designed for Compressive and Tensile Loading Conditions in Lamina Emergent Mechanisms,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 56, pp. 1-15, DOI: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2012.05.007, 2012.

 

Teichert, G.H., Aten, Q.T., Burnett, S.H., Howell, L.L., and Jensen, B.D., “Single-degree-of-freedom Spatial Mechanisms for Cell Constraint,” Journal of Mechanisms & Robotics, Vol. 4, DOI: 10.1115/1.4006189, 2012.

 

David, R.A., Jensen, B.D., Black, J.L., Burnett, S.H., Howell, L.L., “Study of Design Parameters Affecting the Motion of DNA for Nanoinjection,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol 22, DOI:10.1088/0960-1317/22/5/055006, 2012.

 

Aten, Q.T., Jensen, B.D., Tamowski, S., Wilson, A.M., Howell, L.L., Burnett, S.H., “Nanoinjection: Pronuclear DNA Delivery using a Charged Lance,” Transgenic Research, DOI 10.1007/s11248-012-9610-6, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp. 1279-1290, 2012.

 

Mackay, A.B., Smith, D.G., Magleby, S.P., Jensen, B.D., Howell, L.L., “Metrics for Evaluation and Design of Large-displacement Linear-motion Compliant Mechanisms,” Journal of Mechanical Design, DOI: 10.1115/1.4004191, Vol. 134, pp. 0011008-1 to 0011008-9, 2012.

 

Wilding, S.E., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Spherical Lamina Emergent Mechanisms,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, DOI: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2011.10.009, Vol. 49, pp. 187-197, 2012.

 

Aten, Q.A., Jensen, B.D., and Howell, L.L., “Geometrically Non-linear Analysis of Thin-film Compliant MEMS via Shell and Solid Elements,” Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, DOI: 10.1016/j.finel.2011.08.022, Vol. 49, pp. 70-77, 2012.

 

Greenberg, H.C., Gong, M.L., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Identifying Links Between Origami and Compliant Mechanisms,” Mechanical Sciences, a special issue associated with the Second International Symposium on Compliant Mechanisms, Delft, The Netherlands. doi:10.5194/ms-2-217-2011, Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 2, pp. 217-225, 2011.

 

Aten, Q.A., Jensen, B.D., Burnett, S.H., and Howell, L.L., “Electrostatic Accumulation and Release of DNA using a Micromachined Lance,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 20, pp. 1449-1461, 2011.

 

Halverson, P.A., Bowden, A.E., Howell, L.L., “A Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model of the Human Spine to Predict Implant-induced Changes on Motion,” Journal of Mechanisms & Robotics, DOI: 10.1115/1.4004896, Vol. 3, No. 4, 041008 (7 pages), 2011.

 

Fowler, R.M., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., “Compliant Space Mechanisms: A New Frontier for Compliant Mechanisms,” doi:10.5194/ms-2-205-2011, Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 2, pp. 205-215, 2011.

 

Gollnick, P.S., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “An Introduction to Multi-Layer Lamina Emergent Mechanisms,” Journal of Mechanical Design, DOI: 10.1115/1.4004542,Vol. 133, No. 8, 081006 (11 pages), 2011.

 

David, R.A., Jensen, B.D., Black, J.L., Burnett, S.H., Howell, L.L., “Effects of Dissimilar Electrode Material and Electrode Position on DNA Motion During Electrophoresis,” Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine, DOI: 10.1115/1.4003600, Vol. 2, No. 2, 021014-1 to 021014-6, 2011.

 

Aten, Q.T., Zirbel, S.A., Jensen, B.D., and Howell, L.L., “A Numerical Method for the Position Analysis of Compliant Mechanisms with More Degrees of Freedom than Inputs,” DOI: 10.1115/1.4004016, Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 133, No. 6, 061009-1 to 061009-9, 2011.

 

Ferrell, D.B., Isaac, Y.F., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Development of Criteria for Lamina Emergent Mechanism Flexures with Specific Application to Metals,” Journal of Mechanical Design, DOI: 10.1115/1.4003538, Vol. 133, pp. 031009-1 to 031009-9, 2011.

 

Montierth, J.R., Todd, R.H., and Howell, L.L., “Analysis of Elliptical Rolling Contact Joints in Compression,” Journal of Mechanical Design, DOI: 10.1115/1.4003499, Vol. 133, pp. 31001-1 to 31001-10, 2011.

 

Smith, D.G., Aten, Q.T., Jensen, B.D., and Howell, L.L., “Piezoresistive Encoders for Ratcheting Actuation Systems,” Sensors & Actuators A: Physical, Vo. 165, pp. 173-180, 2011.

 

Chase, R.P. Jr., Todd, R. H., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., “A 3-D Chain Algorithm with Pseudo-rigid-body Model Elements,” Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp 142–156, 2011.

 

Howell, L.L., DiBiasio, C.M., Cullinan, M.A., Panas, R., and Culpepper, M.L., “A Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model for Large Deflections of Fixed-Clamped Carbon Nanotubes,” Journal of Mechanisms & Robotics, Vol. 2, No. 3, 034501-1 to 034501-5, 2010.

 

David, R.A., Jensen, B.D., Black, J.L., Burnett, S.H., Howell, L.L., “Modeling and Experimental Validation of DNA Motion in Uniform and Non-Uniform DC Electric Fields,” Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine, Vol 1, No. 4, 041007-1 to 041007-8, 2010.

 

Larsen, G., Howell, L.L., Jensen, B.D., “Torsional Piezoresistive Effect in Polysilicon,” IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 10, No. 10, pp. 1566-1570, 2010.

 

Hutchison, D.N., Morrill, N.B., Aten, Q.T., Turner, B.W., Jensen, B.D., Howell, L.L., Vanfleet, R.R., and Davis, R.C., “Carbon Nanotubes as a Framework for High-Aspect-Ratio MEMS Fabrication,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 75-82, 2010.

 

Jacobsen, J.O., Winder, B.G., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Lamina Emergent Mechanisms and Their Basic Elements,” Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics, Vol. 2, No. 1, 011003-1 to 011003-9, 2010.

 

Chen, G., Aten, Q.T., Zirbel, S., Howell, L.L., Jensen, B.D., “A Tristable Mechanism Configuration Employing Orthogonal Compliant Mechanisms,” Journal of Mechanisms & Robotics, Vol. 2, No. 1, 014501-1 to 014501-6, 2010.

 

Halverson, P.A., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Tension-Based Multi-stable Compliant Rolling-contact Elements,” Mechanism & Machine Theory, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 147-156, 2010.

 

Messenger, R.K., Aten, Q., McLain, T.W., and Howell, L.L., “Piezoresistive Feedback Control of a MEMS Thermal Actuator,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 1267-1278, 2009.

 

Jacobsen, J.O., Chen, G., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., “Lamina Emergent Torsion (LET) Joint,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 44, No. 11, pp. 2098-2109, 2009.

 

Chen, G., and Howell, L.L., “Two General Solutions of Torsional Compliance for Variable Rectangular Cross-section Hinges in Compliant Mechanisms,” Precision Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 268–274, 2009.

 

Chen, G., Wilcox, D.L., Howell, L.L., “Fully Compliant Double Tensural Tristable Micromechanisms,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 19, No. 2, 025011, 2009.

 

Winder, B.G., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “Kinematic Representations of Pop-up Paper Mechanisms,” Journal of Mechanisms & Robotics, Vol. 1, No. 2, 021009-1 to 021009-10, 2009.

 

Cherry, B.B., Howell, L.L., and Jensen, B.D., “Evaluating Three-dimensional Effects on the Behavior of Compliant Bistable Micromechanisms,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 18, 095001-1 to 095001-10, 2008.

 

DiBiasio, C.M., Culpepper, M.L., Panas, R., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Comparison of Molecular Simulation and Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model Predictions for a Carbon Nanotube–based Compliant Parallel–guiding Mechanism,” ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 130, No. 4, pp. 042308-1 to 042308-7, 2008.

 

Lusk, C.P. and Howell, L.L., “Spherical Bistable Micromechanism,” ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 130, No. 4, 045001-1 to 045001-6, 2008.

 

Lusk, C.P. and Howell, L.L., “Components, Building Blocks, and Demonstrations of Spherical Mechanisms in Microelectromechanical Systems,” ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 130, No. 3, pp. 034503-1 to 034503-4, 2008.

 

Johns, G.K., Howell, L.L., Jensen, B.D., McLain, T.W., “A Model for Predicting the Piezoresistive Effect in Microflexures Experiencing Bending and Tension Loads,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 226-235, 2008.

 

Waterfall, T.L., Johns, G.K., Messenger, R.K., Jensen, B.D., McLain, T.W., and Howell, L.L., “Observations of Piezoresistivity for Polysilicon in Bending that are Unexplained by Linear Models,” Sensors & Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 141, pp. 610-618, 2008.

 

Weight, B.L., Mattson, C.A., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “Configuration Selection, Modeling, and Preliminary Testing in Support of Constant Force Electrical Connectors,” Journal of Electronic Packaging, Trans. ASME, Vol. 129, No. 3, pp. 236-246, 2007.

 

Kennedy, J.A., Howell, L.L., and Greenwood, W., “Compliant High-precision E-Quintet Ratcheting (CHEQR) Mechanism for Safety and Arming Devices,” Precision Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 13-21, 2007.

 

Hubbard, N.B., Culpepper, M.L., and Howell, L.L., “Actuators for Micropositioners and Nanopositioners,” ASME Applied Mechanics Reviews, Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 324-334, 2006.

 

Culpepper, M.L., DiBiasio, C.M., Panas, R., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “Simulation of a Carbon Nanotube–based Compliant Parallel–guiding Mechanism: A Nanomechanical Building Block,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, No. 20, 203111, 2006.

 

Lusk, C.P. and Howell, L.L., “Design Space of Single-Loop Planar Folded Micro Mechanisms with Out-of-Plane Motion,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 128, No. 5, pp. 1092-1100, 2006.

 

Jensen, K.A., Lusk, C.P., and Howell, L.L., “An XYZ Micromanipulator with Three Translational Degrees of Freedom,” Robotica, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 305-314, 2006.

 

Wittwer, J.W., Baker, M.S., and Howell, L.L., “Simulation, Measurement, and Asymmetric Buckling of Thermal Microactuators,” Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical, Vol. 128, No. 2, pp. 395-401, 2006.

 

Anderson, J.K., Howell, L.L., Wittwer, J.W., and McLain, T.W., “Piezoresistive Sensing of Bistable Micro Mechanism State,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 943-950, 2006.

 

Wittwer, J.W., Baker, M.S., and Howell, L.L., “Robust Design and Model Validation of Nonlinear Compliant Micromechanisms,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 33-41, 2006.

 

Campbell, K.J., Morine, J.C., George, Z.A., Schultz, S.M., Hawkins, A.R., Lusk, C.P., and Howell, L.L., “Polymer Stretching to Produce Flat Suspended Micromembranes,” Journal of Microlithography, Microfabrication and Microsystems, Vol. 4, 043005, 2005.

 

Wilcox, D.L. and Howell, L.L., “Fully Compliant Tensural Bistable Micro-mechanisms (FTBM),” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 1223-1235, 2005.

 

Cannon, J.R. and Howell, L.L., “A Compliant Contact-aided Revolute Joint,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 40, No. 11, pp. 1273-1293, 2005.

 

Yu, Y.-Q., Howell, L.L., Lusk, C.P., Yue, Y., and He, M.-G., “Dynamic Modeling of Compliant Mechanisms Based on the Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 127, No. 4, pp. 760-765, 2005.

 

Masters, N.D. and Howell, L.L., “A Three Degree-of-Freedom Model for Self-Retracting Fully Compliant Bistable Micromechanisms,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 127, No. 4, pp. 739-744, 2005.

 

Guerinot, A.E., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., and Todd, R.H., “Compliant Joint Design Principles for High Compressive Load Situations,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 127, No. 4, pp. 774-781, 2005.

 

Hubbard, N.B. and Howell, L.L., “Design and Characterization of a Dual-stage, Thermally Actuated Nanopositioner,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 15, pp. 1482-1493, 2005.

 

Cannon, B.R., Lillian, T.D., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., and Linford, M.R., “A Compliant End-effector for Microscribing,” Precision Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 86-94, 2005.

 

Hubbard, N.B., Howell, L.L., Barber, J.P., Conkey, D.B., Hawkins, A.R., and Schmidt, H., “Structural Models and Design Rules for On-chip Micro-channels with Sacrificial Cores,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 15, pp. 720-727, 2005.

 

Barber, J.P., Conkey, D.B., Lee, J.R., Hubbard, N.B., Howell, L.L., Yin, D., Schmidt, H., and Hawkins, A.R., “Fabrication of Hollow Waveguides with Sacrificial Aluminum Cores,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 363-365, 2005.

 

Wittwer, J.W. and Howell, L.L., “Mitigating the Effects of Local Flexibility at the Built-In Ends of Cantilever Beams,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, Trans. ASME, Vol. 71, No. 5, pp. 748-751, 2004.

 

Jensen, B.D. and Howell, L.L., “Bistable Configurations of Compliant Mechanisms Modeled Using Four Links and Translational Joints,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 126, No. 4, pp. 657-666, 2004.

 

Crane, N.B., Howell, L.L., Weight, B.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Compliant Floating-Opposing-Arm (FOA) Centrifugal Clutch,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 126, No. 1, pp. 169-177, 2004.

 

Wittwer, J.W., Chase, K.W., and Howell, L.L., “The Direct Linearization Method Applied to Position Error in Kinematic Linkages,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 39, No. 7, pp. 681-693, 2004.

 

Mattson, C.A., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Development of Commercially Viable Compliant Mechanisms Using the Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model: Case Studies of Parallel Mechanisms,” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 195-202, 2004.

 

Jensen, B.D. and Howell, L.L., “Identification of Compliant Pseudo-Rigid-Body Four-Link Mechanism Configurations Resulting in Bistable Behavior,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 125, No. 4, pp. 701-708, 2003.

 

Howell, L.L., Roach, G.M., Clark, D.C., and Cox, J.J., “Use of Explicit Instructional Objectives to Achieve Program Outcomes and Facilitate Assessment: A Case Study,” International Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 828-835, 2003.

 

Jiang, G., Niederhauser, T.L., Davis, D.D., Lua, Y.-Y., Cannon, B.R., Dorff, M.J., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., and Linford, M.R., “Stability of Alkyl Monolayers on Chemomechanically Scribed Silicon to Air, Water, Hot Acid and X-rays,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 226, Nos. 1-3, pp. 9-16, 2003.

 

Boyle, C., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., and Evans, M.S., “Dynamic Modeling of Compliant Constant-Force Compression Mechanisms,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 38, No. 12, pp. 1469-1487, 2003.

 

Masters, N.D. and Howell, L.L., “A Self-Retracting Fully Compliant Bistable Micromechanism,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Trans. IEEE and ASME, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 273-280, 2003.

 

Lott, C.D., McLain, T.W., Harb, J.N., and Howell, L.L., “Modeling the Thermal Behavior of a Surface-micromachined Linear-displacement Thermomechanical Microactuator,” Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical, Vol. 101, Nos. 1-2, pp. 239-250, 2002.

 

Baker, M.S. and Howell, L.L., “On-Chip Actuation of an In-Plane Compliant Bistable Micromechanism,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Trans. IEEE and ASME, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 566-573, 2002.

 

Roach, G.M. and Howell, L.L., “Evaluation and Comparison of Alternative Compliant Overrunning Clutch Designs,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 124, No. 3, pp. 485-491, 2002.

 

Gomm, T., Howell, L.L., and Selfridge, R.H., “In-Plane Linear-Displacement Bistable Microrelay,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Institute of Physics, Vol. 12, pp. 257-264, 2002.

 

Jensen, B.D. and Howell, L.L., “The Modeling of Cross-Axis Flexural Pivots,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 461-476, 2002.

 

Wittwer, J.W., Gomm, T., and Howell, L.L., “Surface Micromachined Force Gauges: Uncertainty and Reliability,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Institute of Physics, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 13-20, 2002.

 

Harb, J.N., LaFollette, R.M., Selfridge, R.H., and Howell, L.L., “Microbatteries for Self-Sustained Hybrid Micropower Supplies,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 104, No. 1, pp. 46-51, 2002.

 

Nielson, A.J. and Howell, L.L., “An Investigation of Compliant Micro-Half-Pantographs Using the Pseudo Rigid Body Model,” Mechanics of Structures and Machines, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 317-330, 2001.

 

Edwards, B.T., Jensen, B.D., and Howell, L.L., “A Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model for Initially-Curved Pinned-Pinned Segments Used in Compliant Mechanisms,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 123, No. 3, pp. 464-468, 2001.

 

Parise, J.J., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Ortho-Planar Linear-Motion Springs,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 36, Nos. 11-12, pp. 1281-1300, 2001.

 

Midha, A., Howell, L.L., and Norton, T.W., “Limit Positions of Compliant Mechanisms Using the Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model Concept,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 35, No.1, pp. 99-115, 2000.

 

Bromley, S.C., Howell, L.L., and Jensen, B.D., “Determination of Maximum Allowable Strain for Polysilicon Micro-Devices,” Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 27-41, 1999.

 

Lyon, S.M., Erickson, P.A., Evans, M.S., and Howell, L.L., “Prediction of the First Modal Frequency of Compliant Mechanisms Using the Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 121, No. 2, pp. 309-313, 1999.

 

Jensen, B.D., Howell, L.L., and Salmon, L.G., “Design of Two-Link, In-Plane, Bistable Compliant Micro-Mechanisms,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 121, No. 3, pp. 416-423, 1999.

 

Howell, L.L. and Leonard, J.N., “Optimal Loading Conditions for Non-Linear Deflections,” International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 505-514, 1997.

 

Murphy, M.D., Midha, A., and Howell, L.L., “The Topological Synthesis of Compliant Mechanisms,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 185-199, 1996.

 

Howell, L.L. and Midha, A., “A Loop-Closure Theory for the Analysis and Synthesis of Compliant Mechanisms,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 118, pp. 121-125, March 1996.

 

Howell, L.L., Midha, A., and Norton, T.W., “Evaluation of Equivalent Spring Stiffness for Use in a Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model of Large-Deflection Compliant Mechanisms,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 118, No. 1, pp. 126-131, March 1996.

 

Howell, L.L. and Midha, A., “Parametric Deflection Approximations for End-Loaded, Large-Deflection Beams in Compliant Mechanisms,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 117, pp. 156-165, March 1995.

 

Howell, L.L. and Midha, A., “The Effects of a Compliant Workpiece on the Input/Output Characteristics of Rigid-Link Toggle Mechanisms,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 801-810, 1995.

 

Howell, L.L., Rao, S.S., and Midha, A., “Reliability-Based Optimal Design of a Bistable Compliant Mechanism,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 116, pp. 1115-1121, December 1994.

 

Norton, T.W., Midha, A., and Howell, L.L., “Graphical Synthesis for Limit Positions of a Four-Bar Mechanism Using the Triangle Inequality Concept,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 116, pp. 1132-1140, December 1994.

 

Howell, L.L. and Midha, A., “A Method for the Design of Compliant Mechanisms with Small-Length Flexural Pivots,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 116, pp. 280-290, March 1994.

 

Midha, A., Norton, T.W., and Howell, L.L., “On the Nomenclature, Classification, and Abstractions of Compliant Mechanisms,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 116, pp. 270-279, March 1994.

 

Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceedings

Merriam, E.G., Colton, M., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Statically Balanced Compliant Rotary Joint,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Portland, OR, Aug 4-7, 2013, DETC2013-13142.

 

Zirbel, S.A., Aten, Q.T., Easter, M., Jensen, B.D., Howell, L.L., “Compliant Constant-Force Micro-Mechanism for Enabling Dual-Stage Motion,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Chicago, IL., Aug 12-15, 2012, DETC2012-70321.

 

Pluimers, P.J., Tolou, N., Jensen, B.D., Howell, L.L., Herder, J.L., “A Compliant On/Off Connection Mechanism for Preloading Statically Balanced Compliant Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Chicago, IL., Aug 12-15, 2012, DETC2012-71509.

 

Teichert, G.H., Aten, Q.T., Easter, M., Burnett, S.H., Howell, L.L., and Jensen, B.D., “A Metamorphic Erectable Cell Restraint (MECR),” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Chicago, IL., Aug 12-15, 2012, DETC2012-70475.

 

Zirbel, S., Curtis, S., Bradshaw, R., Duffield, L., Teichert, G., Williams, N., Rorrer, R., Magleby, S., Howell, L., “Bi-Behavioral Prosthetic Knee Enabled by a Metamorphic Compliant Mechanism,” Chapter 36, Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots I, pp. 401-409, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-4141-9_36, also proceedings of ReMAR 2012, Tianjin, China, July 9-11, 2012. Winner of conference Best Paper Award.

 

Fernelius, M.H., Toone, N.C., Jensen, B.D., Burnett, S.H., Howell, L.L., “Preliminary Studies of Stand-Alone Lance Concepts for Nanoinjection of DNA,” Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Denver, CO, Nov 11-17, 2011, IMECE2011-64026.

 

Larsen, G.T., Howell, L.L., and Jensen, B.D., “Integrated Piezoresistive Flexure Model in Polysilicon,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Washington, D.C., Aug 28-31, 2011, DETC2011-47902.

 

Dodgen, E.R., Howell, L. L, and Bowden, A.E., “Spinal Implant with Adjustable and Nonlinear Stiffness,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Washington, D.C., Aug 29-31, 2011, DETC2011-47913.

 

Olsen, B.M., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., “Compliant Mechanism Road Bicycle Brake: A Rigid-Body Replacement Case Study,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Washington, D.C., Aug 28-31, 2011, DETC2011-48621.

 

Albrechtsen, N.B., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Expanding the Capabilities of Credit-Card-Sized Products using Lamina Emergent Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Washington, D.C., Aug 28-31, 2011, DETC2011-48420.

 

Gollnick, P.S., Black, J.D., Savage, E.E., Bowen, L.A., Qiu, L., Magleby, S.P. Howell, L.L., “A Preliminary Study of Actuation Approaches for Lamina Emergent Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Washington, D.C., Aug 28-31, 2011,DETC2011-48350.

 

Albrechtsen, N.B., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “Identifying Potential Applications for Lamina Emergent Mechanisms Using Technology Push Product Development,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Montreal, Quebec, Aug 15-18, 2010, DETC2010-28531.

 

Stratton, E., Howell, L.L., and Bowden, A., “Force-displacement Model of the FlexSuReTM Spinal Implant,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Montreal, Quebec, Aug 15-18, 2010, DETC2010- 28476.

 

Aten, Q.T., Zirbel, S.A., Jensen, B.D., and Howell, L.L., “Numerical Method for the Analysis of Under-actuated Compliant Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Montreal, Quebec, Aug 15-18, 2010, DETC2010- 28474.

 

Olsen, B.M., Issac, Y., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Utilizing a Classification Scheme to Facilitate Compliant Mechanism Design,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Montreal, Quebec, Aug 15-18, 2010, DETC2010- 28473.

 

Montierth, J.R., Todd, R.H., and Howell, L.L., “Analysis of Elliptical Rolling Contact Joints in Compression,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, San Diego, CA, Aug 30 – Sept 2, 2009, DETC2009-87447.

 

Olsen, B.M., Hopkins, J.B., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., Culpepper, M.L., “A Proposed Extendable Classification Scheme for Compliant Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, San Diego, CA, Aug 30 – Sept 2, 2009, DETC2009-87290.

 

Smith, D.G., Larsen, G.T., Howell, L.L., “Design Optimization of a Linear-motion Large-displacement Micro Mechanism for High Off-axis Stiffness,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, San Diego, CA, Aug 30 – Sept 2, 2009, DETC2009-87301.

 

Andersen, C.S., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “Principles and Preliminary Concepts for Compliant Mechanically Reactive Armor,” Proceedings of the 2009 ASME/IFToMM International Conference on Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robotics, London, June 22-24, 2009, pp. 373-379.

 

Halverson, P.A., Howell, L.L., and Bowden, A.E., “A Flexure-based Bi-Axial Contact-aided Compliant Mechanism for Spinal Arthroplasty,” Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Mechanisms & Robotics Conference at the 2008 ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Brooklyn, NY, August 3-6, 2008, DETC2008-50121.

 

Winder, B.G., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “A Study of Joints Suitable for Lamina Emergent Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Mechanisms & Robotics Conference at the 2008 ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Brooklyn, NY, August 3-6, 2008, DETC2008-49914.

 

Cherry, B.B. and Howell, L.L., “Three-dimensional Behavior of Fully Compliant Bistable Micromechanisms” Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Micro- and Nanosystems at the 2008 ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Brooklyn, NY, August 3-6, 2008, DETC2008-49525.

 

Cullinan, M., DiBiasio, C., Howell, L.L. Culpepper, M., and Panas, R., “Modeling of a Clamped-clamped Carbon Nano-tube Flexural Element for Use in Nanoelectro-mechanical Systems, Proceedings of the 13th National Conference on Mechanisms and Machines (NaCoMM07), Bangalore, India, December 12-13, 2007.

 

Brooks, S.H., Magleby, S.P., Halverson, P., and Howell, L.L., “Type Synthesis of Compliant 5-bar Mechanisms with Application to Mechanical Disc Brakes,” Proceedings of the 13th National Conference on Mechanisms and Machines (NaCoMM07), Bangalore, India, December 12-13, 2007, NaCoMM-2007-103.

 

Jacobsen, J.O., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., “Fundamental Components for Lamina Emergent Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 10-16, 2007, Seattle, WA, IMECE2007-42311.

 

Mackay, A.B., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “A Pseudo-rigid-body Model for Rolling-contact Compliant Beams,” Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2007 as part of the 2007 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, Las Vegas, NV, Sept. 4-7, 2007, DETC2007-35536.

 

Chase, R.P., Todd, R.H., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., “A Large Deflection Analysis Method for Lateral Torsional Buckling,” Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2007 as part of the 2007 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, Las Vegas, NV, Sept. 4-7, 2007, DETC2007-34531.

 

Halverson, P.A., Howell, L.L., Jensen, B.D., and Magleby, S.P., “Concepts for Achieving Multi-stability in Compliant Rolling-contact Elements,” Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2007 as part of the 2007 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, Las Vegas, NV, Sept. 4-7, 2007, DETC2007-34836.

 

Harb, J.N., Lyon, S.M., Larsen, J., Howell, L.L., McLain, T.W., “Design Factors Influencing Power Reduction in Thermomechanical In-plane Microactuators,” Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2007 as part of the 2007 ASME International Conference on Micro- and Nanosystems (MNS), Las Vegas, NV, Sept. 4-7, 2007, DETC2007-34206.

 

Kennedy, J.A. and Howell, L.L., “The Ratchet and Pawl Ring (RaPR) Mechanism,” Proceedings of the 12th IFToMM World Congress, Besançon (France), paper No. 925, June18-21, 2007.

 

Rasmussen, N.O., Wittwer, J.W., Todd, R.H., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “A 3D Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model for Large Spatial Deflections of Rectangular Cantilever Beams,” Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2006 as part of the 2006 ASME Mechanisms & Robotics Conference, Philadelphia, PA, DETC2006-99465.

 

Howell, L.L., “History of Mechanisms: The Odometer of the Mormon Trail,” Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2006 and presentation at the 2006 ASME Mechanisms & Robotics Conference, Philadelphia, PA, DETC2006-99604.

 

Rasmussen, N.O., Todd, R.H., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Investigation of Compliant Ortho-Planar Springs for Rotational Applications,” Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2006 as part of the 2006 ASME Mechanisms & Robotics Conference, Philadelphia, PA, DETC2006-99459.

 

Messenger, R.K., McLain, T.W., and Howell, L.L., “Improved Nanopositioning Resolution through Piezoresistive Feedback Control of a MEMS Thermal Actuator,” Proceedings of the 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2005-81209.

 

Landon, S.D., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “Preliminary Concepts for Deployable Wings on Small UAVs Using Compliance,” Proceedings of the 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2005-82088.

 

Carroll, D.W., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., Todd, R.H., and Lusk, C.P., “Simplified Manufacturing through a Metamorphic Process for Compliant Ortho-planar Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2005-80293.

 

Brooks, S.H., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “Grasping Mechanisms with Self-Centering and Force-Balancing Characteristics,” Proceedings of the 2005 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC2005-85478.

 

Wilcox, D.L. and Howell, L.L., “Double-Tensural Bistable Mechanisms (DTBM) with On-Chip Actuation and Spring-like Post-bistable Behavior,” Proceedings of the 2005 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC2005-84697.

 

Cannon, J.R., Lusk, C.P., and Howell, L.L., “Compliant Rolling-Contact Element Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the 2005 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC2005-84073.

 

Messenger, R.K., McLain, T.W., and Howell, L.L., “Feedback Control of a Thermomechanical Inplane Microactuator Using Piezoresistive Displacement Sensing,” Proceedings of the 2004 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2004-59810.

 

Allred, T., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., and Guerinot, A.E., “Compliant Mechanism Configurations for Vehicle Suspension Systems,” Proceedings of the 2004 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2004-59574.

 

Frischknecht, B., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Crank-slider with Spring Constant Force Mechanism,” Proceedings of the 2004 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC2004-57318.

 

Weight, R.G., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Minimizing Performance Variation for the Compliant Floating-opposing-arm Clutch,” Proceedings of the 2004 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC2004-57206.

 

Hubbard, N.B., Wittwer, J.W., Kennedy, J.A., Wilcox, D.L., and Howell, L.L., “A Novel Fully Compliant Planar Linear-motion Mechanism,” Proceedings of the 2004 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC 2004-57008.

 

Jensen, K.A., Lusk, C.P., and Howell, L.L., “Force Relationships for an XYZ Micromanipulator with Three Translational Degrees of Freedom,” Proceedings of the 2004 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC2004-57028.

 

Guerinot, A.E., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “Preliminary Design Concepts for Compliant Mechanism Prosthetic Knee Joints,” Proceedings of the 2004 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC2004-57416.

 

Allred, T., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., and Todd, R.H., “The Compliant A-arm Suspension,” Proceedings of the Adaptive Structures and Material Systems Symposium, at the 2003 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2003-43259.

 

Cherry, M.S., Roach, G.M., Wittwer, J.W., Howell, L.L., and Cox, J.J., “Reducing Cycle Time and Errors in the Design and Layout of MEMS,” Proceedings of the 29th Design Automation Conference, at the 2003 ASME Design Technical Conference, Chicago, Illinois, DETC2003/DAC-48740.

 

Jensen, K.A. and Howell, L.L., “An XZ Micropositioning Mechanism (XZMM) with Out-of-plane Translation,” Proceedings of the 29th Design Automation Conference, at the 2003 ASME Design Technical Conference, Chicago, Illinois, DETC2003/DAC-48829.

 

Wittwer, J.W and Howell, L.L., “Design of a Functionally Binary Pinned-Pinned Segment for Use as a Tension-Compression Spring in Compliant Micro Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the Adaptive Structures and Material Systems Symposium, at the 2002 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, New Orleans, Louisiana, IMECE2002-33982.

 

Christensen, M.T., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., Todd, R.H., and Mortensen, C., “A New Self-Adjusting CVT Configuration Using Compliant Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the Adaptive Structures and Material Systems Symposium, at the 2002 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2002-34000.

 

Kemeny, D.C., Howell, L.L., Fort, S., Bromley, S., and Masters, N., “Strain at Fracture Data for Use in Polysilicon Microsystem Design,” Proceedings of the 2002 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC2002/MECH-34292.

 

Weight, B.L., Howell, L.L., Lyon, S.M., and Wait, S., “Two-Position Micro Latching Mechanism Requiring a Single Actuator,” Proceedings of the 2002 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC2002/MECH-34291.

 

Kemeny, D.C., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Using Compliant Mechanisms to Improve Manufacturability in MEMS,” Proceedings of the 2002 ASME Design for Manufacturability Conference, DETC2002/DFM-34178.

 

Weight, B.L., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “Selection of Compliant Constant-Force Mechanisms Based on Stress and Force Criteria,” Proceedings of the 2002 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC2002/MECH-34206.

 

Masters, N.D. and Howell, L.L., “A Three Degree of Freedom Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model for the Design of a Fully Compliant Bistable Micromechanism,” Proceedings of the 2002 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC2002/MECH-34202.

 

Lyon, S.M. and Howell, L.L., “A Simplified Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model for Fixed-Fixed Flexible Segments,” Proceedings of the 2002 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC2002/MECH-34203.

 

Herring, A., Magleby, S., Howell, L., and Todd, R., “High Production Manufacturing Considerations for Metallic Compliant Mechanisms With Long Thin Beams,” Proceedings of Design for Manufacturing Conference, at the 2001 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, DETC2001/DFM-21184.

 

Crane, N.B., Weight, B.L., and Howell, L.L., “Investigation of Compliant Centrifugal Clutch Designs,” Proceedings of the 27th Design Automation Conference, at the 2001 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, DETC2001/DAC-21071.

 

Larsen, J.B., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “An Engineering Approach for Matching Technology to Product Applications,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, Glasgow, Scotland, August 2001, ICED01-C586/643, pp. 521-528.

 

Parise, J.J., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Ortho-Planar Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the 26th Biennial Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, at the 2000 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, DETC2000/MECH-14193.

 

Mortensen, C.R., Weight, B.L., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., “Compliant Mechanism Prototyping,” Proceedings of the 26th Biennial Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, at the 2000 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, DETC2000/MECH-14204.

 

Baker, M.S., Lyon, S.M., and Howell, L.L., “A Linear Displacement Bistable Micromechanism,” Proceedings of the 26th Biennial Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, at the 2000 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, DETC2000/MECH-14117.

 

Berglund, M., Magleby, S., and Howell, L.L., “Design Rules for Selecting and Designing Compliant Mechanisms for Rigid-Body Replacement Synthesis,” Proceedings of the 26th Design Automation Conference, at the 2000 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, DETC2000/DAC-14225.

 

Crane, N.B., Howell, L.L., and Weight, B.L., “Design and Testing of a Compliant Floating-Opposing-Arm (FOA) Centrifugal Clutch,” Proceedings of 8th International Power Transmission and Gearing Conference, at the 2000 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, DETC2000/PTG-14451.

 

Lyon, S.M., Howell, L.L., and Roach, G.M., “Modeling Flexible Segments with Force and Moment End Loads via the Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model,” Proceedings of the ASME Dynamics and Control Division - 2000, at the 2000 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Orlando, Florida, November 5-10, DSC-Vol. 69-2, pp. 883-890.

 

Parkinson, M.B., Roach, G.M., and Howell, L.L., “Predicting the Large-Deflection Path of Tapered Cantilever Beams,” Recent Advances in Solids and Structures - 2000, 2000 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Orlando, Florida, November 5-10, PVP-Vol. 415, pp. 195-200.

 

Edwards, B.T., Jensen, B.D., and Howell, L.L., “A Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model for Functionally Binary Pinned-Pinned Segments Used in Compliant Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the 25th Design Automation Conference, at the 1999 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Las Vegas, Nevada, DECT99/DAC-8644.

 

Howell, L.L., “Quadrilateral Joints (Q-Joints) in Compliant Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the Tenth World Congress on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Oulu, Finland, June 1999, Vol. 2, pp. 735-740.

 

Clements Kemeny, D., Howell, L.L., Masters, M., and Weight, B., “Floating Pin Joints Fabricated From Two Layers of Polysilicon at the Micro Level,” Proceedings of the Tenth World Congress on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Oulu, Finland, June 1999, Vol. 2, pp. 874-879.

 

Evans, M.S. and Howell, L.L., “Constant-Force End-Effector Mechanism,” Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference, Robotics and Applications, Santa Barbara, California, October 28-30, 1999, Paper No. 304-040, pp. 205-256.

 

Jensen, B.D., Howell, L.L., and Salmon, L.G., “Introduction of Two-Link, In-Plane, Bistable Compliant MEMS,” Proceedings of the 25th Biennial Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, at the 1998 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Atlanta, Georgia, DETC98/MECH-5837.

 

Nielson, A.J. and Howell, L.L., “Compliant Pantographs via the Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model,” Proceedings of the 25th Biennial Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, at the 1998 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Atlanta, Georgia, DETC98/MECH-5930.

 

Opdahl, P.G., Jensen, B.D., and Howell, L.L., “An Investigation into Compliant Bistable Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the 25th Biennial Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, at the 1998 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Atlanta, Georgia, DETC98/MECH-5914.

 

Roach, G.M., Lyon, S.M., and Howell, L.L., “A Compliant, Overrunning Ratchet and Pawl Clutch with Centrifugal Throw-out,” Proceedings of the 25th Biennial Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, at the 1998 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Atlanta, Georgia, DETC98/MECH-5819.

 

Cragun, R. and Howell, L.L., “A Constrained Thermal Expansion Micro Actuator,” Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), at the 1998 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, DSC-Vol. 66, pp. 365-371.

 

Parkinson, M.B., Howell, L.L., and Cox, J.J., “A Parametric Approach to the Optimization-Based Design of Compliant Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the 23rd Design Automation Conference, DETC97/DAC-3763.

 

Lyon, S.M., Evans, M.S., Erickson, P.A., and Howell, L.L., “Dynamic Response of Compliant Mechanisms Using the Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model,” Proceedings of the 16th Biennial Conference on Mechanical Vibration and Noise, DETC97/VIB-4177.

 

Jensen, B.D., Howell, L.L., Gunyan, D.B., and Salmon, L.G., “The Design and Analysis of Compliant MEMS Using the Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model,” Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), at the 1997 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, DSC-Vol. 62, pp. 119-126.

 

Howell, L.L. and Midha, A., “Parametric Deflection Approximations for Initially Curved, Large-Deflection Beams in Compliant Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the 1996 ASME Mechanisms Conference, 96-DETC/MECH-1215.

 

Derderian, J.M., Howell, L.L., Murphy, M.D., Lyon, S.M., and Pack, S.D., “Compliant Parallel-Guiding Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the 1996 ASME Mechanisms Conference, 96-DETC/MECH-1208.

 

Millar, A.J., Howell, L.L., and Leonard, J.N., “Design and Evaluation of Compliant Constant-Force Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the 1996 ASME Mechanisms Conference, 96-DETC/MECH-1209.

 

Ananthasuresh, G.K. and Howell, L.L., “Case Studies and a Note on the Degrees-of-Freedom in Compliant Mechanisms,” Proceedings of the 1996 ASME Mechanisms Conference, 96-DETC/MECH-1217.

 

Howell, L.L. and Midha, A., “Determination of the Degrees of Freedom of Compliant Mechanisms Using the Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model Concept,” Proceedings of the Ninth World Congress on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Milano, Italy, 1995, Vol. 2, pp. 1537-1541.

 

Norton, T.W., Midha, A., and Howell, L.L., “Design of Crank-Rocker Mechanisms for Transmission and Output Angle,” Proceedings of the Ninth World Congress on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Milano, Italy, 1995, Vol. 1, pp. 179-183.

 

Howell, L.L. and Midha, A., “The Development of Force-Deflection Relationships for Compliant Mechanisms,” Machine Elements and Machine Dynamics, 23rd ASME Biennial Mechanisms Conference, 1994, DE-Vol. 71, pp. 501-508.

 

Howell, L.L., Midha, A., and Murphy, M.D., “Dimensional Synthesis of Compliant Constant-Force Slider Mechanisms,” Machine Elements and Machine Dynamics, 23rd ASME Biennial Mechanisms Conference, 1994, DE-Vol. 71, pp. 509-515.

 

Murphy, M.D., Midha, A., and Howell, L.L., “On the Mobility of Compliant Mechanisms,” Machine Elements and Machine Dynamics, 23rd ASME Biennial Mechanisms Conference, 1994, DE-Vol. 71, pp. 475-479.

 

Murphy, M.D., Midha, A., and Howell, L.L., “The Topological Analysis of Compliant Mechanisms,” Machine Elements and Machine Dynamics, 23rd ASME Biennial Mechanisms Conference, 1994, DE-Vol. 71, pp. 481-489.

 

Murphy, M.D., Midha, A., and Howell, L.L., “Type Synthesis of Compliant Mechanisms Employing a Simplified Approach to Segment Type,” Mechanism Synthesis and Analysis, 23rd ASME Biennial Mechanisms Conference, 1994, DE-Vol. 70, pp. 51-60.

 

Murphy, M.D., Midha, A., and Howell, L.L., “Methodology for the Design of Compliant Mechanisms Employing Type Synthesis Techniques with Example,” Mechanism Synthesis and Analysis, 23rd ASME Biennial Mechanisms Conference, 1994, DE-Vol. 70, pp. 61-66.

 

In Review for Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceedings

Francis, K.C., Rupert, L.T., Lang. R.J., Morgan, D.C., Magleby, S.P., and Howell, L.L., “From Crease Pattern to Product: Considerations to Engineering Origami-Adapted Designs,” Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Buffalo, NY, Aug 17-20, 2014, DETC2014-34031.

 

Abstract-reviewed Conference Proceedings

Edmonson, B.J., Bown, L.A., Grames, C.L., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., Bateman, T.C., “Oriceps: Origami-Inspired Forceps,” Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, Snowbird, UT, Sept 16-18, 2013, SMASIS2013-3299.

 

Zirbel, S.A., Wilson, M.E., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “An Origami-Inspired Self-Deployable Array,” Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, Snowbird, UT, Sept 16-18, 2013, SMASIS2013-3296.

 

Hutchison, D.N., Aten, Q.T., Turner, B., Morrill, N., Howell, L.L., Jensen, B.D., Davis, R.C., and Vanfleet, R.R., “High aspect ratio microelectromechanical systems: A versatile approach using carbon nanotubes as a framework,” IEEE Transducers 2009, pp. 1604–1607, June 21–25 2009.

 

Johns, G.K., Waterfall, T.L., Howell, L.L., Jensen, B.D., and McLain, T.W., “Exploring Resistance Change Trends associated with Integrated Piezoresistive Sensoring Elements,” Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. #6529, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems, San Diego, California, March 2007, Paper No. 6529-106.

 

Teichert, K., Waterfall, T.L., Jensen, B.D., Howell, L.L., and McLain, T.W., “Piezoresistive in-line Integrated Force Sensors for On-chip Measurement and Control,” Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. #6529, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems, San Diego, California, March 2007, Paper No. 6529-78.

 

Messenger, R.K., McLain, T.W., and Howell, L.L., “Piezoresistive Feedback for Improving Transient Response of MEMS Thermal Actuators,” Proceedings of the SPIE: Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems, Vol. 6174 I, p. 617408, 2006.

 

Hubbard, N.B. and Howell, L.L., “Experimental Repeatability of a Thermal Actuator for Nanopositioning,” Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), at the 2004 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2004-59616.

 

Wilcox, D.L., Howell, L.L., and Lyon, S.M., “The Stacked Amplified Thermomechanical In-plane Microactuator (StATIM),” Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), at the 2004 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2004-59617.

 

Lusk, C.P. and Howell, L.L., “A Micro Helico-Kinematic Platform via Spherical Crank Sliders,” Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), at the 2004 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2004-59622.

 

Wittwer, J.W., Howell, L.L., Wait, S.M., and Cherry, M., “Predicting the Performance of a Bistable Micro Mechanism Using Design-Stage Uncertainty Analysis,” Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), at the 2002 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2002-33262.

 

Cannon, B., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., Jiang, G., Niederhauser, T.L., and Linford, M.R., “Influence of Scribe Speed and Force on Chemomechanical Nanofunctionalized Features,” Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), at the 2002 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2002-33554.

 

Masters, N. and Howell, L.L., “Modeling of a Self-Retracting Fully-Compliant Bistable Micromechanism,” Technical Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, MSM 2002.

 

Jensen, B.D., Parkinson, M.B., Kurabayashi, K., Howell, L.L., and Baker, M.S., “Design Optimization of a Fully-Compliant Bistable Micro-Mechanism,” Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), at the 2001 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 2001, IMECE2001/MEMS-23852.

 

Wittwer, J.W., Howell, L.L., and Chase, K.W., “Modeling the Effects of Joint Clearances in Planar Micromechanisms,” Technical Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, MSM 2001, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, March 2001, pp. 374-377.

 

Lott, C.D., McLain, T.W., Harb, J.N., and Howell, L.L., “Thermal Modeling of Surface-micromachined Linear Thermomechanical Actuator,” Technical Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, MSM 2001, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, March 2001, p. 370-373.

 

Cragun, R. and Howell, L.L., “Linear Thermomechanical Microactuators,” Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), at the 1999 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 1999, pp. 181-188.

 

Henrie, A.J.M. and Howell, L.L., “Variable Compliance via Magneto-Rheological Materials,” Proceedings of the 43rd International SAMPE Symposium, Anaheim, California, June 1998, pp. 431-443.

 

Salmon, L.G., Gunyan, D.B., Derderian, J.M., Opdahl, P.G., and Howell, L.L., “Use of the Pseudo-Rigid Body Model to Simplify the Description of Compliant Micro-Mechanisms,” 1996 IEEE Solid-State and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, June 1996, pp. 136-139.

 

Norton, T.W., Howell, L.L., and Midha, A., “Graphical Synthesis of a Four-Bar Mechanism for Specification of Limit Positions or Transmission Angle,” Proceedings of the Second National Applied Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, Cincinnati, Ohio, November 1991, Paper No. IIA-4.

 

Accepted for Abstract-Reviewed Conference Proceedings

Zirbel, S.A., Trease, B.P., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Deployment Methods for an Origami-inspired Rigid-foldable Array,” accepted for publication in Proceedings of the 42nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, Baltimore, Maryland, May 14-16, 2014.

 

Merriam, E.G., Jones, J., Howell, L.L., “Design of 3D printed Titanium Compliant Mechanisms,” accepted for publication in Proceedings of the 42nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, Baltimore, Maryland, May 14-16, 2014.

 

Abstracts Published

Tolou N., Pluimers P.J., Jensen B.D., Magleby S., Howell L.L., Herder J.L., Carbon-Nanotube-Based Constant Force Mechanisms, Mikroniek, 52(4) 58, 2012.

 

Tolou, N., Pluimers, P.J., Jensen, B.D., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., Herder, J.L., “Constant Force Micro Mechanism out of Carbon Nanotube Forest,” Proceedings of the 12th EUSPEN International Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2012.

 

Stolworthy, D.K., Zirbel, S.A., Bowden, A.E., Howell, L.L, “Non-intuitive Changes in Spine Biomechanical Response with Testing Temperature and Compressive Load,” Proceedings of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Francisco, CA, Feb 4-11, 2012.

 

Stolworthy, D.K., Zirbel, S.A., Howell, L.L, Bowden, A.E., “Predicting Rate-dependent Lumbar Spine Biomechanics: Range of Motion, Neutral Zone, Stiffness, and Hysteresis,” Proceedings of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Francisco, CA, Feb 4-11, 2012.

 

Qiu, L., Howell, L.L., “Characteristics of Compliant Mechanisms for Graduate Students’ Course in BYU of US,” in Chinese, China Metallurgical Education, No. 4, pp 8-10, 2011.

 

Stolworthy, D.K., Zirbel, S.A., Samuels, M.A., Bowden, A.E., Howell, L.L, “Increased Loading Rate Decreases Hysteresis and ROM in the Human Lumbar Spine,” Transactions of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Volume 36, Paper 0784, 2011.

 

Halverson, P.A., Bowden, A.E., Howell, L.L, “Prediction of Adjacent-level Degenerative Effects in the Spine Using the Pseudo-rigid-body Model,” Transactions of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Volume 36, Paper 0781, 2011.

 

Zirbel, S.A., Stolworthy, D.K., Howell, L.L, Bowden, A.E., “Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Alters Lumbar Spine Segmental Stiffness in All Modes of Loading Under a Compressive Follower Load,” New Horizons in Intervertebral Disc Research, Philadelphia, P.A., November 16-18, 2011.

 

Stolworthy, D.K., Zirbel, S.A., Bowden, A.E., Howell, L.L, “Non-intuitive Changes in Spine Biomechanical Response with Testing Temperature and Compressive Load Effects,” Proceedings of the 7th Annual Utah Biomedical Engineering Conference, Salt Lake City, UT, September 10, 2011.

 

Reece, D.M., Bowden, A.E., Halverson, P.A., Howell, L.L, “A Clinically Accessible Numerical Model for Showing Spinal Motion Following Surgery,” Proceedings of the Utah Conference on Undergraduate Research, Ogden, UT, February 18, 2011.

 

Wilson, A.M., Aten, Q., Jensen B., Tamowski, S., Howell L., Burnett, S.H. “Next Generation Pronuclear Injection:  MEMS Replaces the Pump,” Transgenic Research 20(5), p. 1159-60, 2011.

 

Stolworthy, D.K., Zirbel, S.A., Samuels, M.A., Bowden, A.E., Howell, L.L., “Increased Loading Rate Decreases Hysteresis and ROM in the Human Lumbar Spine,” 56th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, 2010.

 

Halverson, P.A., Bowden, A.E., Howell, L.L., “Prediction of Adjacent-level Degenerative-effects in the Spine Using the Pseudo-rigid-body Model,” 56th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, 2010.

 

Stolworthy, D.K., Zirbel, S.A., Howell, L.L., Bowden, A.E., “Effects of Temperature and Bending Rate on Biomechanical Analysis of the Human Lumbar Spine,” Sixth Annual Mountain West Biomedical Engineering Conference, 2010.

 

Zirbel, S.A., Stolworthy, D.K., Dodgen, E., Bowden, A.E., Howell, L.L., “Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Alters Lumbar Spine Segmental Stiffness in All Modes of Loading under a Compressive Follower Load,” Sixth Annual Mountain West Biomedical Engineering Conference, 2010.

 

Burnett, S.H., Aten, Q., David, R., Howell L., Jensen B., “Zygote restraint and DNA delivery without a holding pipette or a microinjection pump,” Transgenic Research 19(2), p. 325, 2010.

 

Halverson, P., Bowden, A., Stratton, E., Pearsall, D., and Howell, L.L., “The Balanced Spine: A Passive Mechanism for Maintaining Erect Posture,” 55th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Las Vegas, NV, February 22-25, 2009.

 

Aten, Q.T., Burnett, S.H., Howell, L.L., and Jensen, B.D., “A Pumpless, Micron-scale, Self-contained, Microinjector with High Success Rates,” 37th Autumn Immunology Conference, Chicago, IL, November 21-24, 2008.

 

Aten, Q.T., Burnett, S.H., Jensen, B.D., Howell, L.L., “A Pumpless, Micron-scale, Self-contained, Microinjector with High Success Rates,” nanoUtah 2008, Salt Lake City, UT, October 16-17, 2008.

 

Halverson, P.A., Howell, L.L., Bowden, A.E., “The Balanced Spine: A Passive Mechanism for Maintaining Erect Posture,” Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Mountain West Biomedical Engineering Conference, Sep 5-6, 2008, Park City, UT.

 

Halverson, P., Bowden, A., and Howell, L.L., “Wearless Total Disc Arthroplasty through Compliant Mechanism Design,” Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of The Spine Arthroplasty Society, May 6-9, 2008, Miami Beach, Fl, p. 42.

 

Abstracts in Review

Gong, M.L., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “Creating Novel Motions with N-Long Chains of Interconnected Spherical Mechanisms,” 6OSME, 6th International Meeting on Origami in Science, Mathematics and Education, August 10-13, 2014, Tokyo, Japan.

 

Edmondson, B.J., Lang, R.J., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., “An Orthogonal Construction Technique for Thick Rigidly Foldable Origami,” 6OSME, 6th International Meeting on Origami in Science, Mathematics and Education, August 10-13, 2014, Tokyo, Japan.

 

Lang, R.J., Evans, T., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., “A Graphical Technique for Designing Rigidly Foldable Origami Mechanisms,” 6OSME, 6th International Meeting on Origami in Science, Mathematics and Education, August 10-13, 2014, Tokyo, Japan.

 

Magazine Articles and Other Articles

Howell, L.L., “Faith: An Essential Principle of the Gospel,” Speeches, 2011-2012, Brigham Young University 2011-2012 Speeches, Intellectual Reserve, Inc., and Brigham Young University, pp. 57-67, 2012.

 

Howell, L.L. and McLain, T.W., “A Little Push,” Mechanical Engineering, ASME, Vol. 124, No. 10, pp. 58-59, October 2002.

 

Zemitis, W.S. and Howell, L.L., “Modeling of Axisymmetric Structures with Discontinuous Stiffeners Using 2-D Elements in ANSYS,” Technotes Corner, ANSYS News, Second Issue, pp. 9-13, 1995.

 

Editorials and Book Reviews

Slocum, A.H., Howell, L.L., Frecker, M.I., “Origami and Tessellation in Design,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 135, 115001, DOI: 10.1115/1.4025387, November 2013.

 

Howell, L.L., “Enjoying the Research Journey,” Guest Editorial, Journal of Mechanisms & Robotics, Vo. 2, No. 1, pp. 010301-1 to 010301-2, 2010.

 

Ananthasuresh, G.K. and Howell, L.L., “Mechanical Design of Compliant Microsystems – A Perspective and Prospects,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 127, No. 4, pp. 736-738, 2005.

 

Howell, L.L. and Midha, A., “Book Review of Theory of Mechanisms and Machines, Second Edition by A. Ghosh and A.K. Mallik, Affiliated East-West Press Private Limited, New Delhi, India, 1988, viii+586pp. Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 167-168, 1995.

 

Howell, L.L. and Midha, A., “Book Review of Classical and Modern Mechanisms for Engineers and Inventors,” by P.W. Jensen, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, New York, 1991, vi+603pp. Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 30, No. 1, p. 167, 1995.

 

U.S. Patents Issued

“Laminar Injection Apparatus and Method,” Albrechtsen, N.B., Howell, L.L., and Magleby, S.P., U.S. Patent 8,585,677, issued November 19, 2013, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“User-Selectable Force Conversion Apparatus and Method,” Bowen, L., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., Olsen, B., Bateman, T., Lebaron, D., Ojha, A., U.S. Patent 8,573,572, issued November 5, 2013, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Spherical Three-degree-of-freedom Platform,” Lusk, C.P. and Howell, L.L., U.S. Patent 8,336,421, issued December 25, 2012, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Spinal Implant,” Halverson, P.A., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., and Bowden, A.E., U.S. Patent 8,308,801, November 13, 2012, assigned to Brigham Young University, licensed to Crocker Spinal Technologies, Inc.

 

“Out-of-Plane Configuration-adjusting Mechanism, System, and Method,” L.L. Howell, Magleby, S.P., Bassett, E.K., Mackay, A.B., and Winder, B.G., US Patent 8,210,065, July 3, 2012, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“A Method of Treating a Degenerate Spinal Segment,” Bowden, A.E., Halverson, P.A., Howell, L.L., Stratton, E., US Patent 8,172,883, May 8, 2012, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Carbon Nanotube-based Compliant Mechanism,” Culpepper, M.L., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., DiBiasio, C., Panas, R., U.S. Patent 7,884,525, February 8, 2011, assigned to Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Brigham Young University.

 

“Spherical Bistable Mechanism,” Lusk, C.P. and Howell, L.L., U.S. Patent 7,763,818, July 27, 2010, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Micromechanical Positional State Sensing Apparatus Method and System,” Messenger, R.K., McLain, T.W., Anderson, J.K., and Howell, L.L., U.S. Patent No. 7,616,013, November 10, 2009, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Bistable Micromechanical Devices,” Messenger, R.K., McLain, T.W., Anderson, J.K., and Howell, L.L., U.S. Patent No. 7,554,342, June 30, 2009, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Continuously Variable Transmission or Clutch with Ortho-Planar Compliant Mechanism,” Whiting, M.J., Howell, L.L., Todd, R.H., Magleby, S.P., Anderson, M.C., and Rasmussen, N.O., U.S. Patent No. 7,338,398, issued March 4, 2008, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Self-Retracting Fully Compliant Bistable Micromechanism,” Masters, N. and Howell, L.L., U.S. Patent No. 7,126,446, issued October 24, 2006, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Compliant Bistable Micromechanism,” Howell, L.L., Parkinson, M.B., Jensen, B.D., and Roach, G.M., U.S. Patent No. 7,075,209, issued July 11, 2006, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Substantially Constant-Force Exercise Machine,” Howell, L.L. and Magleby, S.P., U.S. Patent No. 7,060,012, issued June 13, 2006, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Compliant, Ortho-Planar, Linear Motion Spring,” Howell, L.L., Thomson, S., Briscoe, J.A., Parise, J.J., Lorenc, S., Larsen, J.B., Huffmire, C.R., Burnside, N., and Gomm, T.A., U.S. Patent No. 6,983,924, issued January 10, 2006, assigned to Brigham Young University, and a non-exclusive license to Flowserve.

 

“Dual Position Linear Displacement Micromechanism,” Howell, L.L., Lyon, S.M., Weight, B.L., and Clements, D., U.S. Patent No. 6,982,515, issued January 3, 2006, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Constant Force Apparatus and Method,” Weight, B.L., Mattson, C.A., Magleby, S.P., Howell, L.L., and Brown, B.J., U.S. Patent No. 6,945,800, issued September 20, 2005, assigned to Brigham Young University, licensed to ATL.

 

“Multi-Layered Compliant Mechanisms and Method of Manufacture,” Todd, R.H., Howell, L.L., Magleby, S.P., and Herring, A.L., U.S. Patent No. 6,757,975, issued July 6, 2004, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Compliant Clutch,” Howell, L.L. and Crane, N.B, U.S. Patent No. 6,736,249, issued May 18, 2004, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Thermomechanical In-Plane Microactuator,” Howell, L.L. and Lyon, S.M., U.S. Patent No. 6,734,597, issued May 11, 2004, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Braking Device with Shoe-Orienting Compliant Member,” Coons, T., Garner, E., and Howell, L.L., U.S. Patent No. 6,454,055, issued September 24, 2002, assigned to Brigham Young University, and licensed to Tektro, Taiwan.

 

“Continuously Variable Transmission,” Hansen, K. and Howell, L.L., U.S. Patent No. 6,432,009, issued August 13, 2002, assigned to Brigham Young University, and licensed to Recreational Systems, Inc.

 

“Compliant Derailleur,” Howell, L.L., Baker, M.S., Herring, A.L., and Lott, C.D., U.S. Patent No. 6,354,971, issued March 12, 2002, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Recumbent Cycle with Improved Suspension,” Rasmussen, C.M., Howell, L.L., Johnson, C., Johnson, K., Hansen, K., Cedeno, T., Hayes, D., and Arnold, J., U.S. Patent No. 6,247,714, issued June 19, 2001, assigned to Happijac Company.

 

“Bistable Compliant Mechanism,” Jensen, B.D., Howell, L.L., and Roach, G.M., U.S. Patent No. 6,215,081, issued April 20, 2001, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Compliant Overrunning Clutch with Centrifugal Throw-out,” Roach, G.M. and Howell, L.L., U.S. Patent No. 6,148,979, issued November 21, 2000, assigned to Brigham Young University.

 

“Compliant Constant-Force Mechanism and Devices Formed Therewith,” Midha, A., Murphy, M.D., and Howell, L.L., U.S. Patent No. 5,649,454, issued July 22, 1997, assigned to Purdue Research Foundation and Delco Electronics division of General Motors.

 

 

Prof. Howell’s research focus is compliant mechanisms. The research has included the development of compliant mechanisms theory and extensions to origami-inspired mechanisms, microelectomechanical systems, medical devices, and compliant space mechanisms.

Compliant mechanisms gain their motion from the deflection of flexible components rather than from traditional mechanical components such as bearings and hinges. Advantages of compliant mechanisms include improved performance (e.g. high precision, low weight, reduced wear), reduced cost (e.g. no assembly, simplified manufacturing, reduced part count), and ease of miniaturization (e.g. microelectromechanical systems and nano-scale systems). Research in compliant mechanisms includes the development of fundamentals that enables the modeling, analysis, and design of compliant mechanisms, particularly those that undergo large, nonlinear deflections. The BYU Compliant Mechanisms Research Group (CMR) has also extended the research to origami-inspired mechanisms, microelectromechanical systems, medical devices, and compliant space mechanisms.